Primary Literature

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1994 Marx

Leo Marx & Merritt Roe Smith, Does Technology Drive History? (1994)

(Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1994)


1753 Laugier

Marc-Antoine Laugier, Essai Sur L’architecture (1753)

Trans. Wolfgang And Anni Herrmann (Los Angeles: Hennessey, 1977)


1760s-70s Neo-Classicism

Sir John Soane, The Royal Academy Lectures (ed. David Watkin, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000)

Charles-Louis Clérisseau, Antiquities de la France (Paris: 1778)

Giovanni Battista Piranesi, Della magnificenza ed architettura de’ Romani (Rome: 1761)


1781-1823 Jefferson

excerpt from Notes on the State of Virginia (1781)

excerpts from letters (1785-1816)

excerpt from Jefferson's Autobiography (1823)


1836 Pugin

Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin, Contrasts: Or, A Parallel Between The Noble Edifies Of The Fourteenth And Fifteenth Centuries And Similar Buildings Of The Present Day; Shewing The Present Decay Of Taste (1836)

Repr. Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1969


1841 Pugin

Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin, The True Principles of Pointed or Christian Architecture (1841)

Repr. London: Academy Editions; New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1973


1841-53 Walter

Thomas Ustick Walter, Lectures on the History and Philosophy of Architecture (1841-53)

Ed. Jhennifer A. Amundson, (Philadelphia: Athenæum, 2006)


1843 Pugin

Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin, An Apology for the Revival of Christian Architecture in England (1843)

Repr. Oxford: St. Barnabas, 1969


1851 Ruskin

John Ruskin, The Seven Lamps of Architecture (1851)

Repr. New York: Dover, 1989


1872 Viollet-le-Duc

Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc, Lectures on Architecture (1872)

Trans. B. Bucknall. (NY: Dover, 1987)


1877 Morris

William Morris. “The Lesser Arts of Life” (1877)

Delivered before the Trades' Guild of Learning, December 4, 1877 and collected in Hopes and Fears for Art (London: 1882)


1896 Sullivan

Louis Sullivan, “The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered”

Lippincott’s (March 1896)


1896-1914 Wagner

Otto Wagner, Modern Architecture: A Guidebook for his Students to this Field of Art (1896-1914)

Trans. Harry Francis Mallgrave (Santa Monica: Getty Center, 1988)


1901 Wright

Frank Lloyd Wright, "The Art and Craft of the Machine"

Published in Brush and Pencil


1908 Loos

Adolf Loos, “Ornament and Crime” (1908)

Repr. Yehuda Safran and Winfred Wang, eds. The Architecture of Adolf Loos (London: Arts Council, 1985)


1914 Sant’Elia

Antonio Sant’Elia, “Manifesto of Futurist Architecture” (1914)

Trans. Umbro Apollonio, ed. Futurist Manifestos (New York: Viking Press, 1973).


1914 Scheerbart

Paul Scheerbart, Glass Architecture (1914)

Repr. Dennis Sharp, ed., Glass Architecture (New York: Praeger, 1972)


1917 Taut

Bruno Taut, Alpine Architektur (Hagan i.W.: Folkwang-Verlag, 1917)

Trans. Bletter (1981)


1918 De Stijl

Theo Van Doesburg, et. al. "The Style" Manifesto


1919 Gropius

Walter Gropius, Bauhaus Manifesto (1919)

Source: Form and Function: A Source Book for the histry of Architecture and Design, 1890-1939; ed. Tim and Charlotte Benton (Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 1975)

1923 Le Corbusier

Le Corbusier, "Mass-Production Housing" & "Airplanes,"  Vers une architecture (Paris, 1923, trans. Frederick Etchells, Towards a New Architecture)


1926 Le Corbusier

Le Corbusier/Pierre Jeanneret, "Five Points Toward a New Architecture," Almanach de l'architecture moderne (Paris, 1926)


1932 Hitchcock & Johnson

Henry-Russell Hitchcock and Philip Johnson, The International Style: Architecture Since 1922 (New York: 1932)

Study Guide


1966 Venturi

Robert Venturi, Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture (New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1966)



1983 Porphyrios

Demetri Porphyrios, “Classicism is Not a Style” (1983)

Repr. Demetri Porphyrios: Selected Buildings and Writings , (London: Academy Group, 1993)


1984 Prince Charles

Prince Charles. Speech presented on the occasion of the 150th Anniversary of the Royal Institute of British Architects, Royal Gala Evening at Hampton Court Palace (30 May 1984)

1988 Deconstructivist Architecture

Mark Wigley, Introduction to Deconstructivist Architecture catalogue (ed. Wigley & Philip Johnson; MOMA, 1988)


1994 Greenberg

Allan Greenberg, “Why Classical Architecture is Modern,” Architecture 83 (November 1994)


1994 Koolhaas (et al.)

OMA, Rem Koolhaas & Bruce Mau, “Bigness, or the Problem of Large," S, M, L, XL (New York: Monacelli Press, 1995)


2002 Braungart

Michael Braungart, “Beyond the Limits of Sustainable Architecture”

Excerpt from Big & Green: Toward Sustainable Architecture in the 21st Century (Princeton Architectural Press, 2002)